What is Ophthalmology ?
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. All evaluations that purport to diagnose eye disease should be carried out by a physician. An ophthalmologist is a doctor of medicine who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the eye, in addition to diagnosing systemic disease that manifest in eye signs or symptoms. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical and medical specialists.
The word ‘ophthalmology’ comes from the Greek roots ‘ophthalmos’, meaning eye and ‘logos’ meaning word, thought, or discourse. Ophthalmology literally means ‘the science of eyes’. Ophthalmology treatment in India is one of the world’s best. Trained medical practioners study and practice this branch of medicine in top hospitals of the country.
Ophthalmology Versus Optometry
Ophthalmology and Optometry are two different branches of medicine concerning the human eyes. Both have similarities but are not be confused with each other as they have their differences.
An Optometrist works in the field of sight testing, diagnosing, correcting and treatment of vision changes. Basically, an Optometrist is an eye health care professional and not a medical doctor. The study of the field of optometry involves performing different vision and eye care tests, detecting certain eye abnormalities, prescribes for several eye care diseases and dispensing and prescribing corrective lenses. While an ophthalmologist is a certified medical doctor treating on vision and eye care. An ophthalmologist differs from opticians and optometrists in terms of training and treatment. An Ophthalmologist has completed the full training medical program and is licensed to perform surgery and medicine.
Using state-of-the-art technology, Ophthalmology treatments in India cover numerous eye conditions, including cataracts, retinal diseases, glaucoma and other vision related disorders. The most common treatments of Ophthalmology in India are:
- LASIK Surgery
- Refractive errors
- Ptosis correction surgery
- Pediatric Opthalmology
Other eye surgery
- Oculoplasty and Orbit
- Cornea transplant
- Pterygium removal surgery
- Eye muscle surgery
- Diabetic retinopathy
- Retinal surgery
- Cornea and refractive surgery
The Neuro ophthalmology is a special branch of medicine that deals large number of optic nerve disorders and neurological disorders. Many ophthalmic diseases are linked with neurologic disorders like strokes, brain tumors and multiple sclerosis. The disorder results in many visual problems such as double vision and blurred vision. Neuro Ophthalmology involves neurosurgery, neurology, Neuroradiology and ophthalmology. Generally Neuro-ophthalmology disorders requires the specialized care of physicians, neuro-ophthalmologists, radiologists, neurosurgeons and specifically general neurologists.
Treatment for Retinal Diseases and Retinal Detachment
Ophthalmology treatments in India also deal with degenerative conditions that affect the retina, the part of the eye responsible for forming images. When the retina deteriorates or becomes detached from the back of the eye, immediate treatment is needed to halt the progression of the disorder.
Macular degeneration affects the macula, the central area of the retina. The disease occurs when the macular tissue deteriorates or when abnormal blood vessels develop in the macula. Over time, these problems causes blurred or distorted vision. While macular degeneration cannot be cured, it can be managed with low-vision aids and other medical, laser, and surgical treatments, depending on the degree of degeneration.
A macular hole is a small opening in the macula, which is located in the center of the retina. Fluid that is inside the eye may leak through the hole, causing blurred and distorted vision. Some macular holes heal themselves, while others require surgery to repair the hole; our surgeons will diagnose the severity of the problem and recommend the appropriate treatment by an ophthalmologist.
Ophthalmology deals with treatment of diabetic patients who are more prone to having retinal diseases. Diabetic retinopathy is a degenerative disease that damages the retinal blood vessels, thus inhibiting the retina’s ability to transmit images. Symptoms range from mild blurred vision to total loss of vision. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy depends on how far the disease has progressed and can include laser treatment of the blood vessels.
When the retina becomes separated from the back of the eye because of injury, disease, or other causes, retinal detachment has occurred. Patients experiencing the symptoms of retinal detachment – sudden flashes of light, spots in the visual field, hazy vision, or the sensation of a curtain closing over the eyes – should seek treatment immediately to prevent permanent vision loss. Treatment options, including laser surgery or insertion of devices to hold the retina in place, depend on the degree of detachment.
Glaucoma is a progressive condition that can damage the eye’s optic nerve, potentially resulting in vision loss and blindness. If left untreated, damage to the optic nerve can cause irreversible vision loss. Although glaucoma is not curable, the disease and its symptoms can be managed medically, with laser treatment, or surgically.
Selective laser trabeculoplasty uses a YAG laser to focus light energy on the internal drainage channel of the eye. SLT targets the pigmented (melanin-containing) cells in the trabecular meshwork using a very short application of light. Because SLT uses a low amount of energy, the surrounding tissue is not damaged. The treatment allows the drain to work more efficiently, successfully lowering eye pressure more than 80 percent of the time.
When medication and laser methods fail to lower intraocular pressure, filtration surgery may be the best option. This conventional glaucoma surgery improves drainage by creating a flap in the outer layers of the eye. To begin, the doctor applies either topical or local anesthesia. When the eyes are numb, the doctor surgically creates the flap.
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery is a sub-specialty of ophthalmology that deals with diseases that affect the area around the eye. Oculoplastic surgeons also specialize in cosmetic surgery of the face and eye area. They perform a wide range of oculoplastic surgical treatments and procedures, including:
- Blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery to remove excess skin and fat
- Periocular rejuvenation surgery
- Reconstruction following Mohs surgery (skin cancer removal)
- Ectropion surgery (to correct an eyelid rolled out away from the eye)
- Entropion surgery (to correct an eyelid and lashes rolled in towards the eye)
- Ptosis repair (to correct a droopy upper eyelid)
- Eyelid retraction repair (to correct white showing above or below the iris)
- Eyelid trauma & tumor surgery
- Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) (tear drainage system reconstruction)
- Conjunctivo-dacryocystorhinostomy (C-DCR) (tear drainage system reconstruction)
- Nasolacrimal (tear drainage system) intubation with silicone tubes
- Punctal and canalicular (tear duct) repair/reconstruction
- Orbital trauma surgery & tumor removal/biopsy
- Enucleation/Evisceration (removal of a blind eye)
- Orbital implants
- Eye socket reconstruction
Cost of Ophthalmology Surgery
Ophthalmology Treatment in India is available at very affordable costs. Hospitals in India are well equipped with latest technology in the field of medicine. India is gaining popularity for its treatments and services in the area of eye care. The benefits of having eye surgery in India is that offers the best treatments under well-qualified doctors at most cost effective prices in the world.
Best Hospitals for Ophthalmology